People with autism usually believe that the entire world, to them, is just like agreement of people, places and events which they work hard to make sense of, and which can bring about intense anxiety, this way some people with autism may concern why they are 'different'. Generally, autism is defined as the brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists through the adulthood. It affects three areas of development: verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, Autistic children characteristically are normal in appearance and grow healthy physically. Physically, autistic children may have a flat masked facial expression, because of squat muscle tone in the face. Distinctively these children express their first true "meaningful words" around 10 to 14 months, that's why these children said to be quite children as have delayed milestones. The term "autism" was first instituted in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanneras, he define autism as the "tendency to daydream, to fantasies, to view life in terms of one's own needs or desires regardless of reality". However in recent researches' it says "Autism is defined as a neuro-developmental disorder that reveals itself in a pronounced abnormal social interaction, patterns of interests, patterns of behavior, and communication ability" (L. Smith 2006). Over all autism can be understood through causes; typical signs and symptoms, alarming prognosis and management through proper treatment modalities. Currently, autism is considered to be a unique disorder that occurs in approximately fifteen out of every 10,000 births (WHO). Autism is four times more common in boys than girls.
Looking at the causes of autism, still it's not clear, as causes are still unknown. Biologically certain researchers think about relation of MMR vaccine as one of the cause of autism in children. Moreover, researchers are investigating the hypothesis that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine causes a recurrent intestinal infection which produce (amino acid compounds). If it gets absorbed into blood then it might effect children's psychology. In addition, other biological factors include seizure disorder or epilepsy. Other factors which cause autism could be lack of mother child bounding, unwanted pregnancy lead to reject child raising and caring, Immunological factor looks to be involved immunological incompatibility.
Furthermore, important complexity faced by autism patient is difficult in involvedness with social imagination. As they do not have flexible thoughts and lost in imaginary plays. Their plays have a tendency to be repetitive and rhythmic in nature and imitate tendency. (eg: copied from videos). Frequently obsessive behaviors observed in them, such as having tension to keep toys in a line, and rotating objects (or themselves). Autistic children are likely to play alone and have not interactions with other children or siblings. One of the article by (Jincy. J & et al. 2007) in nursing review says, "Spontaneous exploratory play is absent. Show imitative play and they are often rigid, repetitive, or monotonous. may exhibit an attachment to a particular object. Stereotypes, mannerisms and grimacing are most frequent. "
The main goals of treatment are to decrease associated deficits and family distress, increase quality of life and functional independence as well. Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy, early in life can help children learn self-care, social and job skills. Available action would include, developmental models, behavior analysis, structured teaching, speech, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.
Prognosis of autism revels that there is no cure. Most children with autism lack in social support, healthy relationships, future employment opportunities .. Few recent studies subjects long-term prognosis. However, Some adults show moderate improvement in communication skills, but a few decline; no study has been done focusing on autism during midlife experiences. Ceratin changes in diagnostic criteria and increased availing of effective early intervention make it doubtful, while research findings can be generalized to recently diagnosed children. Moreover Reports of autism cases increase dramatically in the United States between the year 1996-2005. It is unknown how much cases are identified after effectively utilizing treatment modalities by patients.
To sum up, autism is a complex developmental disability that is typically obvious during the first three years of life. It is not a disease but a disorder, which is categorized as neurological disorder. There are many misconceptions about this disorder, which reflect autism as, it is something mysterious and superstitious and often leave question unanswered. I would highly recommend that if people suspect that any child is suffering from autism, it is best to see a physician that specializes in treating autistic children, so that specific testing can be done. If any one of us found autistic trait in any child, just gives awareness to parents that this is something imperative to be seen by doctor. In addition, awareness through media should be provided to community people so they notify the cases and proper implementation could be done for hem. Moreover this will prevent children from misery of different perspectives of culture such as believing in superstitious and leaving children at shrines for treatment.